The baby's parents are now spending the last few hours with their son at Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children in London before Charlie's ventilator is turned off.
As a result of his mitochondrial disease, 10-month-old Charlie Gard (who appeared to be perfectly healthy at birth and didn't begin showing symptoms until he was roughly 8 weeks old) is blind, deaf, incapable of swallowing or breathing on his own and profoundly brain damaged.
But Great Ormond Street Hospital had said the experimental therapy would not help.
Before the European court, judges in the United Kingdom had ruled that it was lawful for the hospital to withdraw life-sustaining treatment because the child would suffer harm if his present suffering was prolonged without any realistic prospect of improvement and that the experimental therapy could not provide real benefits. Even so, the devastated parents had camped themselves out in Charlie's hospital room, vowing to spend every possible second with their son.
Charlie's parents had been fighting in the British courts to be allowed to take him to the US for an experimental treatment, but the courts ruled not to allow them to do so because doctors didn't feel it would be beneficial.
The debate over Charlie's life is about balancing the moral dilemma of parental rights versus the state's duties to protect the wellbeing of children.
However, his parents want to be allowed to take him to a hospital in the U.S., where they hope he can be treated.
In May, Chris and Connie took the case to the Court of Appeals.
In April 2017, the High Court ruled that it was in Charlie's best interest for life support to be ended.
He is now kept alive on an artificial ventilator at London's Great Ormond Street hospital.
Charlie was transported to Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, where he has been ever since.
Keeping Charlie on life support would only "prolong the process of dying", doctors said, arguing that palliative care was the ethical option. They urged him to grant their son his "one shot". Further, the fact that they're not allowed to choose when and where to withdraw life support on their terms is maddening.
However, Mr Justice Francis agreed with Great Ormond Street's assessment that the extent of Charlie's brain damage was so severe and irreversible that any treatment would be "potentially painful but incapable of achieving anything positive for him".
In a turn of events, however, doctors at Great Ormond concluded that nucleoside, which was not created to cure the disease, will not improve baby Charlie's condition. The courts sided with the doctors and hospital administrators each time. If the court agrees to hear the case, a hearing will be set for a later date.