Puigdemont and his former vice president, Oriol Junqueras, are the two main leaders behind the secession bid, which last month led to a unilateral declaration of independence that Spain thwarted when it imposed direct rule.
Speaker Carme Forcadell will be held in custody until she pays the 150,000-euro bail, according to the written ruling.
Spanish government spokesperson Inigo Mendez de Vigo said the lawmakers' commitment to the judge indicated that a "return of constitutional order (in Catalonia) is starting to become a reality".
A top Catalan lawmaker on Friday left a Madrid prison where she spent the night after posting the bail a Spanish judge imposed as part of a wide-ranging rebellion investigation stemming from Catalonia's declaration of independence.
Also today, the High Court rejected an appeal presented by their lawyers for their release, a court spokeswoman said.
The judge jailed Forcadell and four other parliament members Thursday but set bail after they agreed to either renounce future political activity or do it within the constitutional framework.
The Supreme Court decided on Thursday to take over two other cases against Forcadell and the lawmakers now overseen by a Catalan court, suggesting judges were looking to centralise all legal proceedings involving the independence vote under one roof.
The five, and one other who was released, had been quizzed in the rebellion investigation following the Catalan parliament's October 27 secession declaration. A sixth parliamentarian was freed without bail, DW reported.
A Spanish Supreme Court judge on Thursday ordered the Catalan parliament speaker be released on bail of 150,000 euros ($174,615) pending an investigation into her role in Catalonia's banned push for independence, a court source said.
All of them are being investigated for rebellion, sedition and misappropriation of funds for their roles in the October 27 declaration of independence passed in Catalonia's Parliament.
Foreign Minister Alfonso Dastis told Cope radio it "remains to be seen" if she will keep her word, adding that if she doesn't, he expected the judge to review the release decision.