An England XI featuring nine changes were lucky to come in level at the break but an improved second-half showing and a 54th minute strike from Marcus Rashford - his second goal in as many games - was enough for a 1-0 victory.
The Three Lions struggled early on, but emerged 1-0 winners in Leicester.
England got the new season back on track with their first win of the campaign.
England manager Gareth Southgate recognised his side have vast room for improvement despite bouncing back from three consecutive defeats as a much-changed team edged past Switzerland for a 1-0 friendly win thanks to Marcus Rashford's victor.
Alli started for the Three Lions on Saturday and completed the full ninety minutes as England slumped to a disappointing 2-1 defeat to Spain at Wembley Stadium in their Nations League opener. "We know how exciting he is and we know he is going to be a top player, he's got a super mentality and he's great to work with".
Operating in support of Danny Welbeck at the sharp end of a 3-5-2 system, Rashford was England's liveliest player throughout, and looked their most likely source of a goal even before he netted for the fifth time in global football.
Southgate, meanwhile, said of the row between the players at half-time: 'We expect that, we encourage it.
It wasn't until the five minutes of stoppage time that Switzerland looked like getting an equaliser, and even then the finishing was wayward as both Albian Ajeti and Edimilson Fernandes sent shots high and wide of the target when they should have done better.
"Before I got in the players were trying to sort things out", he continued.
"It was a tall order to ask them to play against an excellent Switzerland side, they kept the ball well and we had to chase too much". "We were outplayed", said Rose, who was one of England's better performers.
England return to Nations League action next month, where Spain have certainly set the standard in their group.
The importance of holding on for a morale-boosting win for Southgate was shown as he introduced a host of regular starters, including captain Harry Kane off the bench for the final quarter.
'It was going to be tough mentally to switch back from the World Cup to these games, physically for all the players, and with two tough games to play.