Pompeo arrived in Russian Federation for talks that are expected to focus on an array of issues including arms control and Iran.
The pair discussed a possible meeting between Trump and Putin at the Group of 20 summit in Japan next month, after the US president said Monday that he would see the Kremlin leader. Iran has denied that they are interested in war.
Pompeo warned Russian Federation not to meddle in the United States presidential election next year, calling on Moscow "to demonstrate that these types of activities are a thing of the past".
Pompeo spoke of "truly overlapping interests" that the two countries "can build on, and most importantly, President Trump very much wants to do that".
Pompeo - who just three days earlier in a speech said that "the Putin regime slays dissidents in cold blood" - said he was not trying to reconcile but rather to find common interests. He cited cooperation in Afghanistan and counterterrorism more broadly, but also a shared goal of getting North Korea to abandon nuclear weapons.
Pompeo's visit represents the first high-level contact between Moscow and Washington since U.S. Special Counsel Robert Muller submitted a report examining the nature of Russia's role in the 2016 U.S. presidential election.
According to Pompeo, the parties also talked about implementation and "how we might move forward in obtaining a ceasefire in the Donbas region".
Ties between the two countries have been poisoned by allegations - denied by Moscow - that Russian Federation tried to influence the results of the 2016 USA presidential election, and by differences over Venezuela, Iran, Syria and Ukraine.
Pompeo sought to alleviate some of the concern but made clear the US would respond to attacks.
On Monday US President Donald Trump warned that Iran would "suffer greatly" were it to "do anything", after US intelligence suggested Tehran was planning to attack US interests in the region. "We also would like to rebuild fully fledged relations, and I hope that right now a conducive environment is being built for that".
"Most of all we must make sure we don't end up putting Iran back on the path to re-nuclearisation, because if Iran becomes a nuclear power its neighbours are likely to want to become nuclear powers", Hunt said.
It's a unusual comment, to say the least, considering that Mueller did establish that Russian Federation meddled in the 2016 election to benefit Trump.
Putin's foreign affairs adviser Yuri Ushakov said later that the Kremlin is prepared to agree to any format for a Putin-Trump meeting.