The Chandrayaan-2, which consists of an orbiter, lander and a rover, will be carrying 13 Indian payloads in addition to a "passive" experiment from the US' National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) known as the Laser Retroreflector Array (LRA). The first launch was when the GSLV-Mk III-D1 successfully placed GSAT-19 satellite to a Geosynchronous Transfer Orbit (GTO) from Sriharikota on June 5, 2017.
Using solar energy to power itself, Pragyan will be able to communicate with the Lander, which in turn can send information to both the Indian Deep Space Network in Byalalu and the Orbiter. If successful, it will make the country the fourth to achieve such a feat, after Russian Federation, the United States and China.
It will be nearly 11 years since India's last foray to the Moon, when the Chandrayaan-1 probe made a controlled impact near the south pole to collect soil samples to test for traces of water. In April, an unmanned Israeli craft crashed into the moon in a failed attempt at the first privately funded lunar landing. The region is crucial, scientists say, as there is a possibility of the presence of water and craters that contain fossil records of the early solar system.
Chandrayaan-2 is the first space mission that will attempt a soft landing on the Moon's South Polar Region.
The Moon is the closest cosmic body at which space discovery can be attempted and documented.
It is programmed to be launched over the weekend on the 15th of July from SDSC, Sriharikota.
Indian Space Research Organisation scientists work on various modules of the Chandrayaan-2 at a facility in Bengaluru.
All three of ISRO's robotic explorers have different lifespans and will be looking to achieve key science goals in their limited time exploring the moon.
Of the lunar poles, the south pole is of greater interest because the area that remains in shadow is much larger than that at the north pole.
The Indian space agency has named lander Vikram in memory of country's space pioneer Vikram Sarabhai and rover Pragyaan means wisdom in Sanskrit. However, it will take around four hours from the time of landing to the time rover comes out of lander.
For about 14 days, the rover will explore this rarely studied lunar area, collecting samples and performing experiments. The soft landing on Moon's surface is likely to be on September 6 or September 7. It carried instruments for chemical, mineralogical and photo-geologic mapping of the lunar atmosphere and surface but all of it was done from afar, except the MIP.
Notably, One wheel of the rover will have the Ashoka Chakra and the Lander will have Tricolour on it. The material ejected from the sub surface allowed ISRO to detect lunar water ice - a valuable resource that could enable future exploration. It is also expected to send back images and data to earth, every 15 minutes.
The satellite is believed to have crashed into the moon's surface.