This was Kohli's seventh double century and he now has most double centuries as an Indian batsman.
Virat Kohli became the second Indian skipper to lead the team in 50 Test matches.
Mayank Agarwal hit his second century in successive matches on a truncated opening day of the second Test against South Africa on Thursday.
In stark contrast, the Proteas frustratingly slumped to 36/3 at the close of play as Indian seamers Umesh Yadav and Mohammad Shami found potency that was sorely lacking from the South Africans' efforts.
A lovely straight drive off Vernon Philander brought up Indian captain's 69th global hundred and the celebration was more about contentment than elation.
A 51-run partnership between the former and Trisha Chetty (22) followed, before both fell to pick-of-the-bowlers Shikha Pandey (2/38) within the space of four overs.
Not for once did he look in any sort of hurry to complete the milestone as he respected the good deliveries.
The skipper started the day on 63, surviving hostile fast bowling from Kagiso Rabada and Vernon Philander.
Kohli, in particular, was leaving anything that Rabada bowled on the off-stump channel for the first few overs. The only blemish was fishing at an away swinger from Philander, which a diving wicketkeeper Quinton de Kock failed to latch onto.
His wicket was followed by an immediate declaration, with India opting to take a dig at a exhausted South African top order before the close of play.
Getting there did not take him long, as he and Jadeja piled on the pain on the South African attack, who were rather unfortunate with a number of balls finding the edge but not carrying to a catcher. They scored the boundaries easily as the runs came by.
Agarwal, batting on 108, edged the ball to South Africa skipper Faf du Plessis at first slip.
If that wasn't enough, Maharaj hurt his shoulder and was taken off the ground with the team management awaiting his scan report.